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I am a year 12 student completing my A levels in the year of 2021. I wish to go to university and study either optometry or dentistry since human biology has always astonished me. I love learning about topics which interest me and I do this by keeping up with current events and through watching various educational and normally short youtube videos ranging from marine creatures and sea life to plastic surgery. I try to read different passages or articles on human biology to broaden my knowledge.

Some of my other hobbies are going on long walks after a long day which I find quite therapeutic since I feel it calms me down and allows me to have some privacy after socialising throughout the day. As well my educational interests, travelling is something which I would love to do in the near future to broaden my cultural knowledge aswell.

Gunveen Kaur

KS Learning

KS Learning provides tuition for all ages inluding GCSE and A Level for a wide range of subjects such as Mathematics, Science, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, English, History, French, German, Spanish, and more, in the Boroughs of Richmond-Upon-Thames, Hounslow, Kingston-Upon-Thames, and surrounding areas.

Tuition for A level and GCSE for students at school or home schooled in subjects like maths and english

Porridge and Rice

Porridge and Rice combats poverty in the Nairobi slums, home to some of the poorest people in the world, by enabling pupils at partner schools to obtain a sound education.

Porridge and Rice is fighting poverty through education for the extreme poor of the Nairobi slums


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KS Learning

KS Learning provides tuition for all ages inluding GCSE and A Level for a wide range of subjects such as Mathematics, Science, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, English, History, French, German, Spanish, and more, in the Boroughs of Richmond-Upon-Thames, Hounslow, Kingston-Upon-Thames, and surrounding areas.

Tuition for A level and GCSE for students at school or home schooled in subjects like maths and english

Porridge and Rice

Porridge and Rice combats poverty in the Nairobi slums, home to some of the poorest people in the world, by enabling pupils at partner schools to obtain a sound education.

Porridge and Rice is working to combat poverty through education for the extreme poor of the Nairobi slums


If you have thoughts that you would like to share with the world, please submit them by email.

Note that the editor will decide whether to publish and/or edit emails before publication. No discussion will be entered into.


If you have any thoughts that you would like to share, please feel free to email


Books Climbing Walking Cats Charity Kenya Nursing French Puzzles Craft Reading Craft Child Development French Nursing Hygiene Charity Cats Walking Climbing Books

Gunveen Kaur

Gunveen is an A Level student with a strong interest in the sciences considering a career in the medical world, from pharmacy to dentistry. She writes on a wide range of topics that interest her.

Money Heist

24 July 2020

Money heist is a Netflix original series based on very strategically planned heist run by ‘The Professor’ who planned the robbery on the royal mint of Spain. The professor gathered criminals with specific skills and personalities for the robbery.

The TV show was originally planned to have a limited series but due to the increased popularity, the show was extended to now currently having four seasons. By 2018, the series was the most-watched non-English language series and one of the most-watched series overall on Netflix.

In my own personal experience, I really enjoyed the show from the beginning. This is because it was not slow, there was a lot of mystery and very engaging. There was always something going on and it was the show of show where if you zoned for a couple of minutes, you would miss out on so much!

My favourite character from the whole show was probably the professor. This is because I was really infatuated by the way he planned and how his mind worked. His experience and his thinking really left me in awe on how brilliant a man really can be. He seemed to know everything about the future and how the police would react and he would always have a response ready. He made sure his whole team was ready to make sure no one would get caught. The professor was so smart that he manged to get one of the head police offers into their side and join the criminals.

There were however times where the professor's plans would not go to plan (as shown in season 4), which would make me wonder how the professor would react to a time where he was unprepared and not all-knowing.

The series also showed how close the team became to be and that the reason for this heist started out about money but eventually became about family. Each team member had gone through many tragic life events but this heist had brought the team together and taught them about the importance of loyalty.

Watching money heist really gave an insight into Spanish culture and also show cased many gorgeous views and destinations around the world such as Thailand and Italy. The team member would often engage in dancing and singing together which I think brought them all much closer. Their famous Italian song - ‘Bella ciao’ was sang various times in the show and had become a very popular song amongst money heist fans.

Overall, I think money heist is one of the best tv shows out there if you like crime and mystery as a genre. While watching it, you really do forget about the real world!


A Cornwall Break

17 July 2020

Cornwall is located in the far south west of England. It is a county filled with beautiful picturesque sandy beaches with the bluest waters. You would not believe that you are in England! On my recent visit to Newquay and St. Ives (which are two cute little towns in Cornwall) we visited many touristic spots.

On my first day me and my family went to the beach in St. Ives. It was almost impossible to find any parking which wasn’t private permit holders only but while we were roaming around in our cars trying to find parking, this gave us the advantage to look at the gorgeous views of the narrow cobbled high streets as well as the breath-taking beach views. I would have to say from all the beaches I've visited in England, nothing will compare to the one i visited in St. Ives! It was as if I was roaming around in the streets of Italy and overlooking the blue seas of Greece.

We also visited Merlin's cave and Tintagel castle which was also around a 30 mins journey from our villa in Newquay. The views of this cave were beyond gorgeous. If only the weather was as sunny as the days before I think I would’ve enjoyed much more. However, after walking the extremely steep hills to get to our destinations we indulged in some delicious Cornish pasties which definitely gave me a more cultural feel.

Cornwall was very different from where I live. There was many more hills and inclines and obviously the amazing beaches. As well as the beaches and hills, the roads seemed to be much narrower within the main tows and mostly dual carriageways on the outskirts. There is also very little cultural diversity compared to London which is probably why it certainly felt like I was in a different country.

This quick trip definitely made me realise how much I disregard the country that I live in and how beautiful it really is. I would love to visit more beautiful places within England as well as the world!

Overall, I thoroughly enjoyed visiting Cornwall. The journey time was not too long and with the right company right weather and right destination, amazing memories can be made. I would definitely consider buying a holiday house where me and my family could visit there often and explore more of Cornwall.


Can Ozone Gas be a disinfectant

10 July 2020

The ozone layer is a thin part of the Earth's atmosphere that absorbs almost all of the sun's harmful ultraviolet light. It is a highly reactive chemical composed of three oxygen atoms, which could provide a safe means for disinfecting certain types of protective equipment which are in high demand for shielding in health care from Covid-19.

'Health care facilities have used ultraviolet light, vaporized hydrogen peroxide, heat, alcohol and other techniques to disinfect these items, but until recently, there had not been much interest in ozone disinfection for PPE, said Finn, who also holds the James A. Carlos Family Chair for Paediatric Technology.'

Ozone is widely used for disinfecting wastewater, purifying drinking water, sanitizing food items, and disinfecting certain types of equipment – even clothing. Ozone disinfection cabinets are commercially available, they have oxidising effects of the gas to kill bacteria and inactivate viruses.

"There was no reason to think it wouldn't work, but we could find no examples of testing done on a variety of personal protective equipment," Finn said. "Oxidizing biological samples to a significant extent is enough to inactivate a virus. Either the genetic material or the outer shell of the virus would be damaged enough that it could no longer infect a host cell."

During the test, the researchers learned that having sufficient humidity in the chamber (at least 50%) was needed for quickly inactivating the viruses in a consistent manner.

After subjecting face masks and respirators to ozone disinfection, the team worked with Associate Professor Ng Lee (Sally) Ng from the School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering to evaluate the filtration capabilities of the items.

The ozone treatment didn't appear to negatively affect the N-95 filtration material. While they ozone didn't harm the filtration ability of the masks, it did damage the elastic materials used to hold the masks on. While the elastic headbands could be removed from the masks during ozone disinfection, removing and replacing them on a large scale could make the ozone treatment technique impractical.


The Lost Continent

3 July 2020

Greater Adria is a Greenland-sized paleo microcontinent that existed from 240 to 140 million years ago. The palaeocontinent is named after Adria, a geologic region found in Italy, where evidence of the microcontinent was first observed

The Greater Adria now forms parts of the Alps, Apennines, the Balkans, Anatolia, the Caucasus. Including the Iberian microcontinent, it also forms Iberia, the Pyrenees, Occitania. Excluding Iberia, the only part remaining relatively intact is a strip running from Turin and Istria to the heel of Italy, under the Adriatic. Most of the subducted remains are some 1,000 km (620 mi) under Europe, deep in the Earth

Greater Adria was large, extending from what is now the Alps all the way to Iran, but not all of it was above the water. That means it was likely a string of islands or archipelagos, said lead author Douwe van Hinsbergen, the chair in global tectonics and paleogeography in the Department of Earth Sciences at Utrecht University in the Netherlands.

Around 100 million to 120 million years ago, Greater Adria smashed into Europe and began diving beneath it — but some of the rocks were too light and so did not sink into Earth's mantle. Instead, they were "scraped off" — in a way that's similar to what happens when a person puts their arm under a table and then slowly moves it underneath: The sleeve get crumpled up, he said. This crumpling formed mountain chains such as the Alps. It also kept these ancient rocks locked in place, where geologists could find them.

The continent was revealed to the public in September 2019. The continent was uncovered through simulations of plate tectonics with the GPlates software



26 June 2020

Motivation is the experience of desire or aversion.

Humans need motivation because each and every person will be going through something or the other in their lives and will have to manage different aspects of life. Motivation play a very key role in one's life. One must definitely have a motivation in life to keep them going. You may never know where you can land up for having a proper motivation in life. This will always put you in a good position but will never let you take a back step from achieving what you want to!

Always keep yourself motivated. Self-motivation is very important. With enough motivation, humans can achieve anything they thought was impossible.

How to become (and stay) motivated

  1. Set goals
  2. Choose goals that interest you
  3. Find things that interest you within goals that don't
  4. Make your goal public
  5. Plot your progress
  6. Break up your goal
  7. Use rewards
  8. Don't do it alone

'Success is a journey and not a destination’.

The most important thing about motivation is that you yourself must want it and must be positive about it. Having a mindset where you are unsure and don’t have the full confidence will get you nowhere and will not provide you with the motivation. Having a ‘Yes I can do it!’ mindset is good Because you think you can, you will do things which make it possible for you. No matter what happens, you stick to your commitments to yourself and get things done. You stay away from excuses. You are ready to prioritise because you know you can achieve your goals and nothing comes without a price.

The basic science of motivation:

Over the years, neuroscientists and psychologists have established that we generally experience motivation when dopamine—a neurotransmitter that relays signals between brain cells—is released and travels to the nucleus accumbens. The nucleus accumbens is an area of the brain that mediates reward behaviour: So, when dopamine reaches the nucleus accumbens, it solicits feedback on whether a good thing or a bad thing is about to happen.

There are two of motivation – intrinsic and extrinsic:

Intrinsic motivation - according to psychologists Stefano Domenico and Richard Ryan, is the "spontaneous tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise one's capacity, to explore, and to learn, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards." In other words, intrinsic motivation comes from within, no outside prompting involved. Extrinsic motivation - It occurs when we're prompted to act by external stimuli.


Bad Breath

19 June 2020

Bad breath can originate both inside and outside of the mouth. Bad breath is typically caused by bacteria present on the teeth and debris on the tongue. Most cases of bad breath are associated with poor oral hygiene, gum diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis, and dry mouth, a condition in which the salivary glands cannot make enough saliva to keep your mouth moist. A visit with a dentist may help rule out periodontal disease and identify any mouth problem that could be contributing to bad breath.

Tonsillitis, respiratory infections such as sinusitis or bronchitis, and some gastrointestinal diseases may be responsible for a small number of cases of bad breath. Advanced liver or kidney disease and uncontrolled diabetes can also lead to unpleasant breath. In these cases, a person is likely to experience significant symptoms beyond bad breath, and should seek medical attention.

Sometimes people think they have bad breath, even when their breath is objectively fine. This is called “pseudo-halitosis.” Halitophobia, or fear of bad breath, is real and may persist despite reassurance from a doctor. People with pseudo-halitosis respond well to reassurance, and may benefit from speaking with a therapist or psychiatrist who has expertise in the field.

Some helpful tips to improve bad breath:

  • Brush your teeth at least twice a day, after meals, with a fluoridated toothpaste.
  • Avoid tobacco smoking and chewing tobacco-based products.
  • Rinse and gargle with an alcohol-free mouthwash before bed.
  • If you have dry mouth, make sure to drink enough fluids throughout the day and use over-the-counter moisturizing agents, such as a dry mouth spray, rinses, or dry mouth moisturizing gel. If you don’t see any improvement, you may want to schedule a visit with an oral medicine specialist. Oral medicine doctors provide comprehensive care for mucosal diseases, salivary gland disorders, orofacial pain conditions, and oral complications of cancer therapies, among other things.
  • Visit your dentist regularly. Remember, oral causes are responsible for most cases of bad breath.


Why dental health is so important

5 June 2020

Inspired by TED talk ‘Think dental health doesn’t matter? Think again?’ -

In this TED talk the presenter Charles Reinertsen described a situation which he had with one of his former patients. This girl had a pimple growing on the surface of her knee. She decided to get it checked out by the doctors where they then prescribed her with antibiotics. Her pimple faded away however every time her antibiotics course finished the pimple would reappear. The doctors decided to culture this and find out what they were dealing with. After the bacteria was investigated, they concluded that this was coming from her oral infection. There was no pain which is why she didn’t visit her dentist for a large period of time. Looks like her dental health had a huge impact on her medical health than she anticipated.

This short anecdote really got me thinking about the importance of oral hygiene and how largely it can impact our overall health. Good dental hygiene keeps your teeth and gums healthy. Although genetics play a large role in whether you get cavities, regular brushing and preventative dental care help keep your teeth and gums healthy. Brushing removes the plaque that causes tooth decay and stimulates your gums to help prevent gum disease. Regular visits to the dentist lead to early disease detection. A key component to proper oral hygiene is regular visits to your dentist. Your dentist can detect a whole lot more than cavities from looking in your mouth. Among the problems and diseases dentists can discover with a thorough examination are:

  • Vitamin deficiencies
  • Acid reflux
  • Tooth grinding
  • Diabetes
  • Osteoporosis
  • Heart problems
  • Dementia
  • Mental health issues
  • Oral cancers

It can develop into periodontitis, a much more serious infection that can cause tooth loss. Infections that start in your mouth have even been linked to such complications and disease as:

  • Asthma
  • Arthritis
  • Premature births
  • Low birth babies
  • Respiratory problems
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Stroke

Untreated tooth and gum disease can even lead to death!


Why do we dream?

29 May 2020

Dreams are hallucinations that occur during certain stages of sleep. They’re strongest during REM sleep (rapid eye movement stage), when you may be less likely to recall your dream. Much is known about other aspects of health. But it’s been harder for researchers to explain the role of dreams.

When you’re awake, your thoughts have a certain logic to them. When you sleep, your brain is still active, but your thoughts or dreams often make little or no sense. This may be because the emotional centres of the brain trigger dreams, rather than the logical regions.

Though there’s no definitive proof, dreams are usually autobiographical thoughts based on your recent activities, conversations, or other issues in your life. However, there are some popular theories on the role of dreams.

Your dreams may be ways of confronting emotional dramas in your life. And because your brain is operating at a much more emotional level than when you’re awake, your brain may make connections regarding your feelings that your conscious self wouldn’t make.

One theory for why we dream is that it helps facilitate our creative tendencies. Artists of all kinds of dreams can be inspired and therefore use it towards their creative work.

Without the logic filter you might normally use in your waking life that can restrict your creative flow, your thoughts and ideas have no restrictions when you’re sleeping.

Dreams that help you deal productively with emotions, memories, and other information may seem very helpful. The occasional nightmare is considered a dream that’s simply more frightening or upsetting. Nightmares tend to be caused by stress, anxiety, or sometimes as a reaction to certain medications.

However, if you have nightmares frequently, you could have a sleeping disorder. Regularly occurring scary dreams can be labelled a sleeping disorder if the nightmares:

  • cause you to be anxious about going to sleep
  • lead to frequent disruptions of your sleep
  • bring about other sleeping or psychological problems

Why is it hard to remember a dream?

One of the reasons dreams can be difficult to remember is that the brain chemical associated with memory (norepinephrine) and the brain’s electrical activity that helps with recall are at their lowest levels when you’re dreaming. In fact, if you have a dream but don’t wake up during the dream, you won’t be able to remember it. The dreams you remember are the ones that are ongoing when you awaken.

Two ways to help recall your dreams is to tell yourself as you’re falling asleep that you want to remember your dream. If that’s your last thought, you may be more likely to wake up with a dream still somewhat fresh in your memory.

Since dream recall can be easily interrupted by even the slightest distraction, you should try to remember as much of your dream as soon as you wake up. Don’t get out of bed or think about anything else. Try to grasp whatever images or memories you have of your dream and write them down.


Dry eyes

22 May 2020

Dry eyes are caused by a lack of adequate tears. Tears are a complex mixture of water, fatty oils and mucus. This mixture helps make the surface of your eyes smooth and clear, and it helps protect your eyes from infection. For some people, the cause of dry eyes is decreased tear production. For others it's increased tear evaporation and an imbalance in the makeup of your tears.

Common causes of decreased tear production include

  • Aging
  • Certain medical conditions, including diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, scleroderma, Sjogren's syndrome, thyroid disorders and vitamin A deficiency
  • Laser eye surgery, though symptoms of dry eyes related to this procedure are usually temporary
  • Tear gland damage from inflammation or radiation

Common causes of increased tear evaporation include

  • Wind, smoke or dry air
  • Blinking less often, which tends to occur when you're concentrating, for example, while reading, driving or working at a computer
  • Eyelid problems, such as out-turning of the lids (ectropion) and in-turning of the lids (entropion)

People who have dry eyes may experience these complications

  • Eye infections. Your tears protect the surface of your eyes from infection. Without adequate tears, you may have an increased risk of eye infection
  • Damage to the surface of your eyes. If left untreated, severe dry eyes may lead to eye inflammation, abrasion of the corneal surface, corneal ulcer and vision problems
  • Decreased quality of life. Dry eyes can make it difficult to perform everyday activities, such as reading

How to treat dry eyes

  • take breaks to rest your eyes when using a computer screen
  • make sure your computer screen is at eye level so you do not strain your eyes
  • get plenty of sleep to rest your eyes
  • if you wear contact lenses, take them out and wear glasses to rest your eyes

A pharmacist may be able to tell you

  • what you can do to treat it yourself - such as cleaning and protecting your eyes
  • if you can buy anything to help - such as eye drops, gels, ointments or allergy medicines
  • if you need to see an optician or GP



15 May 2020

When fluorine, which is negatively charged, meets a positively-charged ion like sodium, cavity fighters are born. When these fluoride compounds are in your mouth, they can actually make your teeth stronger and prevent cavities. They can even reverse early tooth decay. Fluoride is a mineral that occurs naturally in all water sources, including the oceans.

But how does it strengthen your teeth?

When it reaches your teeth, fluoride is absorbed into the enamel. It helps to repair the enamel by replenishing the lost calcium and phosphorous to keep your teeth hard. This process is caused remineralization. When fluoride is present during remineralization, the minerals deposited into the tooth enamel help strengthen your teeth and prevent dissolution during the next demineralization phase. Thus, fluoride helps stop the decay process and prevent tooth decay.

Affected children may have teeth with white spots or lines, and in some cases, even brown or grey discoloration on the enamel of their teeth. Since all water fluoridation systems in developed countries are checked to maintain safe fluoride levels, fluorosis might occur when children swallow too much fluoride toothpaste.

Researchers found that children who grew up drinking naturally fluoridated water had less tooth decay than people living in areas without fluoridated water. Studies since then have repeatedly shown that when fluoride is added to a community's water supply, tooth decay decreases.

The American Dental Association, the World Health Organization and the American Medical Association, among many other organizations, have endorsed the use of fluoride in water supplies because of its effect on tooth decay.

What does fluoride actually do?

Fluoride works during the demineralization and remineralization processes that naturally occur in your mouth. The demineralization process is started by the bacteria in the plaque on your teeth. The bacteria feeds on sugar and other carbohydrates in your mouth and produces acidic saliva that weakens tooth enamel. Fluoride helps control and protect against the damage caused by the demineralization process, keeping teeth resilient to its negative effects. Other times, when your saliva is less acidic, fluoride helps by replenishing the calcium and phosphate ions that make your teeth harder and more protected. This process is called remineralization. Too much loss of minerals without enough replacement leads to tooth decay.

Fluoride is safe and effective when used properly and in appropriate doses, but like anything else, it is possible to get too much of a good thing. After decades of research, the main risk linked to fluoride overuse is dental fluorosis, a condition that kids can develop if they're exposed to excessive fluoride for an extended period of time when they're too young.


Should scientists research options for people to become immortal?

8 May 2020

Should scientists research options for people to become immortal? (Kurzweil manufactures and takes himself hundreds of pills to delay aging and claims people will become virtually immortal soon)

Although the idea of living forever seems to be a typical fiction movie story, it may not be the futuristic pipe dream once thought.

Ray Kurzweil, an author who describes himself as a futurist and works on Google's machine learning project, predicts that by 2029, humans will be extending their lives considerably or even indefinitely. He also believes the human brain could be enhanced by tiny robotic implants that connect to cloud-based computer networks to give us 'God-like' abilities.

At the North western University in the US, scientists learned to turn off the "genetic switch" that causes aging, however, not in humans yet, but in worms. Of course, it's a huge step from worms to humans, but this technique is already an important achievement.

Another achievement was to revive old mice by infusing blood from young mice. Researchers think this procedure could also work on humans.

Silicon Valley is also involved in this science, and we have some big names standing behind the research

Here are the five ways scientists believe to be able to achieve immortality

  • Unlocking the gene power: by cracking the mysteries of genes, scientists may be able to find an "immortality gene" and "implant" it.
  • Cloning: parts of the body for replacement or a whole human being. Cloning is believed to be a branch of immortality studies and it is the most evolved one.
  • Cryogenics: it's more the science of preserving the organism, it may help people "fall into cryogenic sleep" until the cure to their disease is found.
  • Cyber brain: your body may perish, yet your mind can be uploaded to a hard drive and remain ageless. Its main "player" is a project called Russia-2045, which claims to be able to do this in just 17 years.
  • Cellular repairs: nanotechnology is evolving as well, so it's possible that all of our bodily modifications and treatments will soon be done by nanorobots. They may even be able to replace dying cells with newer ones or cure them altogether.

Although immortality has always been an ambition and goal for humans. If this happens would it be right for us to go ahead and do it? There would be immense consequences such as population problems, possibly great expense and inequality as some are able to take advantage of the new technology and others cannot. Many religious people argue with this concept because they believe only God should take our lives and if we decide to make ourselves immortal then that would go against Gods power and will.


What happen to your body when you fall asleep?

1 May 2020

Body Temperature
It tends to go up and down a little during the day, and the same is true at night, although while you're sleeping it can be 1 to 2 degrees lower than in the daytime. Body temperature starts to fall as bedtime approaches, paving the way for a good night's sleep. Your body also tends to lose heat, which helps you fall and stay asleep. That's one of the reasons experts say you shouldn't exercise close to bedtime since exercise heats you up. We sleep better when we're cooler. Your temperature starts to rise toward morning, preparing your body for wakefulness.

During the day, your breathing changes a lot. It all depends on what you're doing and feeling. During non-REM sleep (about 80% of an adult's sleeping time), you breathe slowly and regularly. But during REM sleep, your breathing rate goes up again. That's the time we typically dream. Breathing also becomes shallower and less regular during this sleep phase. Some of it may be due to throat muscles relaxing. It may also be due to less movement of the rib cage during REM sleep. Whenever you're sleeping, your oxygen levels are lower and your carbon dioxide levels are higher because your level of breathing goes slightly down.

Most people don't cough much while they're asleep, especially not during REM sleep. Sleep shuts down your cough reflex. If you do cough while asleep, chances are you're not getting good rest. It may also be a sign of a sleep disorder. A chronic cough is a symptom of obstructive sleep apnea. That's when your throat muscles relax and block your airway for brief periods of time. (If this is occurring then it would be a good idea to see a doctor)

Heart rate
Just like breathing, your heart rate and blood pressure are different during sleep. They change depending on what phase of sleep you're in. Heart rate and blood pressure go down and are steadier during non-REM sleep. During REM sleep, they rise and are more varied, similar to daytime patterns. As daybreak approaches, both heart rate and blood pressure increase. The chances of having a heart attack is higher at this time.

It's basically naptime for the nerve cells in your brain as you dip into non-REM sleep. They do send out a few messages, but nothing much. But like so many other bodily functions, brain activity goes up during REM sleep, sometimes even more than during the day. Blood flow to the brain and the metabolism in your brain also go up during REM sleep. During sleep, the brain limits physical movement. It keeps you from acting out on your dreams. Flailing your arms and legs around while you're sleeping could be dangerous.


How bad is sugar for your teeth?

24 April 2020

Living in the 21st century, sugar is almost present in every food you eat. Without even realising the average adult consumes around 17 teaspoons, or 71.14 grams, of added sugar per day, which far exceeds recommended limits.

Consuming excessive amounts of sugar start at your teeth. The very first symptoms can be detected from your teeth at early stages. One of the biggest problems for teeth regarding high sugar consumption is tooth decay.

This is when sugar molecules combine with saliva and bacteria present in the mouth. This combination leads to plaque on teeth. If left on teeth, plaque can dissolve enamel, which leads to cavities. To control bacteria and plaque on teeth, brushing as soon as possible after eating seems doable for healthy teeth.

Sugar can also lead to gum disease in the mouth. Once gum disease starts, it may advance if untreated. Gum disease can advance to periodontitis, which involves both gum tissues and the bones beneath the gums. The bacteria associated with periodontitis can travel throughout the body, invading joints, connective tissue, and organs such as the kidneys, liver, and lungs. Gum disease can lead to coronary artery disease. Bacteria that accumulates from periodontitis can cause blood clots that clog arteries. Marietta oral surgery may be necessary to treat advanced gum disease. A Marietta periodontist is available to assist with advanced periodontitis. Marietta cosmetic dentists assist patients with the appearance of teeth to resolve issues.

Consuming too much added sugar increases heart disease risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure and inflammation as well as teeth related problems. High-sugar diets have been linked to an increased risk of dying from heart disease.

People who consume diets high in sugar often don't get enough of important nutrients such as vitamins A and C. Children and adolescents may be at the highest risk for nutritional deficiencies due to over-consumption of sugar. The recommended intake of sugar should be 10 percent or less than the total intake of food

By out cutting simple foods which you are most likely to consume daily (e.g. cereal, granola bars, fizzy drinks) can make a huge impact. Most of the time foods like granola bars are promoted as being healthy which have very clever recycled packaging has sugar as its second main ingredient. By being educated on reading food labels and understanding all the abbreviations written on them, every individual has the ability to choose healthier foods which are less likely cause these health-related problems.


Traditional Chinese Medicine

17 April 2020

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is based on theories about qi, a vital energy, which is said to flow along channels called meridians and help the body to maintain health. In acupuncture, needles puncture the skin to tap into any of the hundreds of points on the meridians where the flow of qi can be redirected to restore health. Treatments, whether acupuncture or herbal remedies, are also said to work by rebalancing forces known as yin and yang.

Chinese people believe in TCM because of its long history of usage, traditions, faith, popularity, and related anecdotes.

TCM is an ancient system of health and wellness that's been used in China for thousands of years. Western medicine focuses mainly on treating disease. But TCM looks at your entire well-being.

Western medicine tends to view the body a lot like a machine. It has different systems that need the right inputs and outputs. It's very concrete and logical.

TCM, on the other hand, doesn't focus on science and medicine. Instead, it's based on balance, harmony, and energy

Yin and Yang are opposites that describe the qualities of qi.

  • Yin: night, dark, cold, feminine, negative
  • Yang: day, light, warm, positive, male

The belief is that everything in life has a little bit of its opposite, too, and balance is the key.

According to TCM, these ideas play out in our bodies. When you balance the yin and yang of Qi, you feel healthy and well. TCM aims to create harmony and a healthy flow of qi

Over the past few years, the China has been aggressively promoting TCM on the international stage both for expanding its global influence and for a share of the estimated US$50-billion global market.

Medical-tourism hotspots in China are drawing tens of thousands of foreigners for TCM. Overseas, China has opened TCM centres in more than two dozen cities, including Barcelona, Budapest and Dubai in the past three years, and pumped up sales of traditional remedies. And the WHO has been supporting traditional medicines, above all TCM, as a step towards its long-term goal of health care. According to the agency, traditional treatments are less costly and more accessible than Western medicine in some countries (which may be the reason why the WHO are supporting these medicines).

The WHO has been supporting traditional medicines, above all TCM, as a step towards its long-term goal of universal health care. According to the agency, traditional treatments are less costly and more accessible than Western medicine in some countries.

Many Western-trained physicians and biomedical scientists are deeply concerned, however critics view TCM practices as unscientific, unsupported by clinical trials, and sometimes dangerous as there is no hard-written scientific proof that TCM are more or as nearly effective as western medicines. Practitioners of TCM and Western-trained physicians have often been suspicious to each other. The Western convention is to seek well-defined, well-tested causes to explain a disease state. And it typically requires randomised, controlled clinical trials that provide statistical evidence that a drug works.

From the TCM perspective, this is too simplistic. Factors that determine health are specific to individuals. Drawing conclusions from large groups is difficult, if not impossible. And the remedies are often a mix of a dozen or more ingredients with mechanisms that cannot, they say, be reduced to a single factor.

US National Institutes of Health (NIH), have created units to research traditional medicines and practices. And TCM practitioners are increasingly looking for proof of efficiency in clinical trials.

Critics argue that there is no physiological evidence that qi or meridians exist, and effective evidence that TCM works. There have been just a handful of cases in which Chinese herbal treatments have proved effective in randomised controlled clinical trials. One notable product that has emerged from TCM is artemisinin, which is now a powerful treatment for malaria.

The Chinese appetite for TCM remedies has helped to push species including tigers, rhinoceroses, sea horses and pangolins to the brink of extinction. Desire for TCM products has led to poor treatment of animals in addition to their losses in the wild. Sun bears and Asiatic black bears are captured from forests or captive-bred so that traders can extract bile from their gallbladders. In response to the poaching crisis, countries have banned the killing and capture of many animals used in traditional medicine


Impact on the budget deficit of Covid-19

10 April 2020

The UK is borrowing extraordinary amounts of money simply to help fight the coronavirus pandemic. This money is mostly going towards funding the NHS to help create medication and vaccinations against this deadly virus. Some of this borrowed money is going towards private businesses. For example, the government is giving out social security money to private business owners (also known as universal credit) as these people won't have any income by staying in quarantine.

The UK's budget deficit is set to see "an absolutely colossal increase to a level not seen in peacetime", the director of the Institute for Fiscal Studies has said.

There are likely to be more tax cuts and spending commitments for businesses in the coming days. Individuals are also likely to be targeted with support to help maintain the economy and to prevent panic from arising.

Jan Vlieghe, a member of the BoE's interest-rate setting committee, said that "early indicators" suggest the UK was "experiencing an economic contraction that is faster and deeper than anything we have seen in the past century, or possibly several centuries". Separately, one of the Bank of England's top policymakers has warned that the UK faces its worst economic shock in several hundred years. He did, though, say there was "in principle" a good chance that the UK would return to its "pre-virus trajectory once the pandemic is over".

Some analysts believe that the cost of the lockdown (which is likely to involve a minimum of £200bn of borrowing in the current financial year) will eventually force the government to embrace monetary financing. "Direct monetary financing allows the government to deliver the necessary spending to save lives, while reassuring the public that they will not be overburdened with future debt repayments."

The Chancellor's £330bn of loan guarantees are a liability for the UK state. If the loans made by banks to suffering private companies are not repaid the state will have to compensate the commercial lenders.

However, when the crisis (hopefully) ends, the government will have a higher interest bill to service. This may mean fewer resources for other areas of public spending like health or education or higher taxation for the public.

An example of a similar financial crisis has been presented in the past. In the wake of the Second World War the UK had a debt worth more than 250 per cent of GDP, far higher than today. This decreased as a share of GDP partly thanks to strong GDP growth but also thanks to a combination of rising prices and the "financial repression" of households, with savers effectively being compelled through the banking system to accept returns lower than inflation. This is another way that the cost of government debt rises has been historically been distributed.

Hopefully through past experiences, with time and national support the economy will be restored as well as the health of many individuals across the globe.


Should marijuana be legalised in the UK?

3 April 2020

There are many benefits that this natural drug contains. Cannabis contains CBD which is a chemical that impacts the brain, making it function better without giving it a high along with THC which has pain relieving properties. Consuming marijuana can have a variety of health benefits such as: improving lung capacity, unlike smoking cigarettes, when smoking cannabis your lungs aren't harmed. In fact, a study found that weed actually helps increase the capacity of the lungs rather than cause any harm to it. It also helps people lose weight. Many cannabis users are usually not overweight. That is because cannabis is linked to aiding your body in regulating insulin while managing caloric intake efficiently. This also links to regulating and preventing diabetes. With its impact on insulin, it only makes sense that cannabis can help regulate and prevent diabetes. One of the most obvious benefits of weed is that it helps treat depression. Depression is fairly widespread without most people even knowing they have it. The endocannabinoid compounds in cannabis can help in stabilising moods which can ease depression.

As well as marijuana's surprising benefits, it does have many risks which is the reason why this drug has been illegal for many years in some countries and has also been quite a controversial topic to be discussed; until recent years. Some of the negatives of cannabis is that it may cause addiction. There's long been a debate about whether weed is physically addictive and very little about whether it's psychologically addictive. Both are true, especially as it concerns younger, long-term users who started their habit on potent strains with high THC. The consumption of this drug may also cause memory Loss. A study that followed more than 3,000 American pot users over a 25-year period discovered that people who used weed on a daily basis for five years or more developed a "poorer verbal memory in middle age than people who didn't smoke, or smoked less". For some user's cannabis may cause social anxiety disorders, regular use can lead to mental health issues such depression, anxiety and even schizophrenia. Another disorder cause by cannabis is paranoia. A study conducted at the University of Oxford found that the psychoactive element of marijuana, THC, can lead users to feel a sense of paranoia as a result of the changes in their sensory perception.

Medical forms of marijuana are available over the counter or by prescription in the UK - but it is heavily monitored and regulated. Doctors were allowed to prescribe cannabis products to patients from 1 November 2018. In order for a cannabis product to be considered medicinal it must meet its requirements.

"The scientific evidence suggests cannabis is safer than alcohol. Alcohol kills 40,000 people every year in the U.S. Cannabis kills nobody." Huffpost

While marijuana is widely recognized as being much safer when compared to alcohol and other drugs, it can still cause many of the health issues described above. Most marijuana users will agree that they have experienced some, if not many of these negative side effects of weed at any given time. Now that marijuana is recently legal in many parts of the country (e.g. some US states. Canada and the Netherlands), time will tell if the most debated of these side effects - addiction - will become more serious than anyone expected.

In my own personal opinion, I believe weed should be legalised as it is does not contain the same risks as smoking - which is legalised. It can help many people with pain relief medically or unmedically. For those who are in need of it medically, it may help them gain control of their illnesses and relieve pain. With the correct regulations and restrictions, I believe marijuana may be largely beneficial for society as a whole if it legalised. For example, countries who have legalised it have not faced any problems, so who's to say that the UK will face any major problems? Living in a free capitalist country, us as individuals have the choice to consume our needs which is why people should be given the ability to decide if they want to participate in taking marijuana.