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Motion Bashyal


Because I want a career in mechanical engineering, I chose Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics for my A levels. I am currently on a gap year which I am hoping will be an enriching year before I begin my Mechanical Engineering course in 2020.

I enjoy the arts, and I regularly paint, draw and animate. I have love film and media as well as music, and want someday to direct something of my own. I also like to push my body with sports and activities such as football, basketball, running, skateboarding and biking. I am always up for a challenge be it a game of chess or a game of hockey.

Motion Bashyal



KS Learning

KS Learning provides tuition for all ages inluding GCSE and A Level for a wide range of subjects such as Mathematics, Science, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, English, History, French, German, Spanish, and more, in the Boroughs of Richmond-Upon-Thames, Hounslow, Kingston-Upon-Thames, and surrounding areas.

Tuition for A level and GCSE for students at school or home schooled in subjects like maths and english



Porridge and Rice

Porridge and Rice combats poverty in the Nairobi slums, home to some of the poorest people in the world, by enabling pupils at partner schools to obtain a sound education.

Porridge and Rice is fighting poverty through education for the extreme poor of the Nairobi slums




Contact

If you have thoughts that you would like to share with the world, please submit them by email.

Note that the editor will decide whether to publish and/or edit emails before publication. No discussion will be entered into.


KS Learning

KS Learning provides tuition for all ages inluding GCSE and A Level for a wide range of subjects such as Mathematics, Science, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, English, History, French, German, Spanish, and more, in the Boroughs of Richmond-Upon-Thames, Hounslow, Kingston-Upon-Thames, and surrounding areas.

Tuition for A level and GCSE for students at school or home schooled in subjects like maths and english



Porridge and Rice

Porridge and Rice combats poverty in the Nairobi slums, home to some of the poorest people in the world, by enabling pupils at partner schools to obtain a sound education.

Porridge and Rice is working to combat poverty through education for the extreme poor of the Nairobi slums




Contact

If you have thoughts that you would like to share with the world, please submit them by email.

Note that the editor will decide whether to publish and/or edit emails before publication. No discussion will be entered into.


Contact

If you have any thoughts that you would like to share, please feel free to email

Interests

Books Climbing Walking Cats Charity Kenya Nursing French Puzzles Craft Reading Craft Child Development French Nursing Hygiene Charity Cats Walking Climbing Books


Motion's Blog

Motion interests are diverse, ranging from art to bicycles about which he will blog in his gap year, before heading for university in September 2020.

Akira

11 October 2019

Akira is a 1988 Japanese animated post-apocalyptic cyberpunk film set in a dystopian 2019. It tells the story of Shōtarō Kaneda, a leader of a local biker gang whose childhood friend, Tetsuo Shima, acquires incredible telekinetic abilities after a motorcycle accident, eventually threatening an entire military complex amidst chaos and rebellion in the sprawling futuristic metropolis of Neo-Tokyo. While most of the character designs and settings were adapted from the manga, the plot veers away from the countless side characters, slow pace and second half. In doing so the product is a lot more stylized and was unintentionally more suited for western audiences who revelled in the sight of the amazing design of scenery and heart-warming characters.

Having seen the film many times, I believe that it has many special qualities even with its flaws. By far its greatest quality is the unfathomable attention to detail. Akira's world building is phenomenal with the obsession with detail - every scene is overwhelming just like Neo-Tokyo which allows the viewer to believe it is a city in chaos and that the characters are real. I appreciated the stylistic choices; the bright red coat and Kaneda's bicycle feels like a perfect reflection of his boyish charms and witty attitude. This must have been a huge decision with the manga in black and white, and key to its mainstream success. There are several factors that led to the exceptional quality of Akira such as the decision to use 24 frames per second. Many animators animate only on "twos" which means that they repeat drawings to decrease the frame rate to 12 leading to flat animation with a similar pace and no weight in action scenes. However, the animation of Akira uses ones and twos, resulting in smooth and perfectly paced story-telling with 24 frames per second. There was also the option to use computers to render between frames to reduce man hours, however the director Katsuhiro Otomo requested that they took the laborious route and while the differences are not entirely noticeable, the craft and passion put into this project has inspired many anime, other media and people one of whom being Kanye West, who claims Akira inspired many of his creative decisions such as the set design and action in the music video of "Stronger".

Akira has a lot to say about Japanese post war anxieties and how the country changed after World War II. The opening scene shows a giant explosion of light that destroys Tokyo mirroring the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and shows similar power struggles between religious zealots, corrupt capitalists and violent, troubled youths. The character Tetsuo is a personification of the post war struggles. His psychic powers and mutations are parallels to the deformations that Japan witnessed due to radiation poisoning and his rapid change from powerless to omnipotence over a short period of time is reminiscent of how Japan went from being a country in shambles to becoming an economic power house by the 1980s. The ending suggest that Tetsuo is taken to a parallel universe to be safe and start over and this to me is what Japan wanted, to create a future free from the burdens of the past and since the final battle takes place in the Olympic stadium, which is later destroyed, I believe that it is a symbol of Japan's sour feelings towards the western world at the time. The character of Kaneda is a reflection of the youth of the time, often disobedient and ill mannered due to Japan's rise needing a larger work force which left children often unsupervised just as they are in the movie. However, Tetsuo juxtaposes this and is well mannered and soft but is often treated poorly and is regularly the butt of each joke. I believe this represents Japan's loss of pride, and the country's growing shame over the mistakes during the war. The rise of Tetsuo mirrors the rise of Japan, and I believe that the ending shows Japan's concerns about repeating past mistakes and again becoming a country in shambles as shown by Tetsuo's defeat and the destruction of Neo-Tokyo.

Akira broke boundaries and set standards for future anime, in particular reaching new audiences and popularising the art-form making it viable to produce more films. Akira turned me into an anime fan.

Black Holes

4 October 2019

Theorizing and Proving the Black Hole
The idea of a body so massive that even light could not escape was briefly proposed by astronomical pioneer and English clergyman John Michell in a letter published in November 1784. Michell's simplistic calculations assumed that such a body might have the same density as the Sun, and concluded that such a body would form when a star's diameter exceeds the Sun's by a factor of 500, and the surface escape velocity exceeds the usual speed of light. Michell correctly noted that such supermassive but non-radiating bodies might be detectable through their gravitational effects on nearby visible bodies. In 1915, Albert Einstein developed his theory of general relativity, having earlier shown that gravity does influence light's motion. A few months later, Karl Schwarzschild found a solution to the Einstein field equations, which describes the gravitational field of a point mass and a spherical mass A few months after Schwarzschild, Johannes Droste, a student of Hendrik Lorentz, gave the same solution and wrote more extensively about its properties. This solution had a peculiar behavior at what is now called the Schwarzschild radius, where it became singular, meaning that some of the terms in the Einstein equations became infinite. The nature of this surface was not quite understood at the time.

The Beast is Born
It is believed that a black hole is formed when a star exceeds the Chandrasekhar limit, which is the maximum mass that a star can have and form a white dwarf after a supernova anything larger either becomes a neutron star or black hole, this limit is 1.44 solar masses. A star of has two main forces acting in the main sequence and that is Gravity and Radiation Pressure these two forces are equal and opposite for the most part. Enough hydrogen is fused into helium to counteract the collapse of the star under its own weight. However, once the hydrogen in the core is low/depleted the star begins to collapse. As a result, pressure and then temperature increase due to the decrease in volume, this provides more energy for the star to fuse again but this time helium is the fuel, and this causes the stars radius to increase and then shrink when depleted and this is repeated causing layers of elements in the core and this occurs until Iron is formed. Once Iron is formed no more fusion can occur and the weight begins to cause the star to collapse for the final time, since the star is above the 1.44 solar masses a supernova occurs and leads to two outcomes; either a neutron star, a celestial body of a very small radius and very high density composed of predominantly neutrons or a black hole, a point of infinite mass surrounded by a strange region called the event horizon which once crossed is the ultimate point of no return as not even light can escape its grasp as it has an escape velocity greater than the speed of light, 3x108ms-1.

Black Holes and Figure Skaters
Similar to a figure skater when spinning they will pull their arms and legs closer to their center of mass to achieve a higher angular velocity, the same occurs when a star is collapsing into a black hole this is because angular momentum must be conserved and as the radius decreases the velocity will increase to compensate and in the case of the black home rotates immensely fast. We know this to be true when A.S.A.S.S.N, a space telescope looking for supernovae discovered a signal that repeated at regular intervals of 131 seconds over the course of 450 days, this phenomenon was not from a supernova but from a spinning black hole feeding on a star which is quite rare. This event left an accretion disc (a rotating ring of scattered matter) around the black hole and the high velocity caused tremendous frictional forces which heated the matter and caused it to emit UV, Visible and X-rays which is what the telescope picked up. These events are called Tidal Disruption Events/Flares because as the star approaches the black hole one side experiences differences in gravitational pull like the earth and the moon but on a much larger scale, the tidal forces are so great that they tear the sun apart. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of the spinning black hole is the Ergosphere, this is caused by the fact a singularity cannot spin so the point of infinite mass is instead a ring, a ringularity, this causes spinning ring of infinite mass has strange effects on space-time. The spinning of the ringularity causes space-time to drag with it and create a new region of space called an Ergosphere which surrounds and envelopes the black hole and event horizon. The Ergosphere only partially distorts time and space unlike the past event horizon where time no longer functions and unlike the event horizon passing into the ergosphere does not necessarily consume you. An analogy can be used to understand the difference the event horizon is like a very steep slide, there is only one way to go, but the ergosphere is like the whirlpool around the drain in a sink, entering the ergosphere causes you to gain immense rotational energy. This idea of gaining energy by entering the ergosphere lead to the 'Penrose Process' which is the first and easiest method of voiding energy from the void.

Stealing from the Beast
As we now know the ergosphere when entered provides a large amount of rotational energy due to the 'dragging' of space-time from the ringularity. This idea spawned the Penrose Process where a rocket enters the region and to escape it releases some mass, so chemical energy in the mass is converted to much more kinetic energy than if rocket fuel were to be combusted by itself. This method can primarily be used to boost kinetic energy and would be harder to convert to electrical energy, an advanced civilization could harvest asteroids to exchange for a huge kinetic boost for something like interstellar travel which with the technology we currently have would be nigh impossible.

The Universal Weapon of Mass Destruction
An even more efficient method of siphoning the rotational energy of the black hole was imagined, Superradiant Scattering. To understand this, we must understand that even light gains energy in the ergosphere not as kinetic energy but in the form of a higher frequency this means that if we were to encase the black hole in mirrors like a Dyson Sphere but much better because black holes are so compact relative to stars meaning that harvesting materials for the mirrors will not be such an arduous task. Once the black hole is completely encased an opening can be made into which we fire a burst of EM waves some of it is lost past the event horizon some will pass through the ergosphere and it will gain energy and reflect on a mirror to enter again and gain even more energy occurring over and over, this is called Superradiant Scattering, some mirrors can be opened to siphon the energy which would be much more than we had put in, this in turn slightly slows down the black holes rotational speed but is practically negligible. The reason this method is called a W.M.D on the grandest scale is because if left unchecked and un-siphoned, the energy will build up to catastrophic levels. A supermassive black hole would release as much energy as a supernova meaning that this would be the most destructive weapon man-kind could ever hope to create.

A Hole to call Home
The last civilizations in the Universe long after stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars and red dwarfs will be based around black holes due to their immense lifetime estimated to be in the trillions of years due to Hawking Radiation, a very slow form of decay that occurs on the borders of black holes slowly reducing the radius, being their only weakness. The almost unfathomable power of a black hole may be used to fuel day to day life until the death of the universe because these theories are not just science fiction, but very applicable once technology has caught up to such ridiculous ideas.